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监理工程师:如何监督电梯安装工程?

* 来源: * 作者: * 发表时间: 2019/10/22 11:17:07 * 浏览: 160
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MsoNoSpacing”升降机是重要的•民用建筑中的运输设备。根据用途的不同,可分为乘用电梯,货运电梯,消防电梯,医疗电梯,自动扶梯,车辆电梯等。随着人们生活水平的提高,电梯在各种民用建筑中的使用越来越广泛。作为电气监督工程师,如何控制电梯的安装质量,减少安全隐患和质量问题是一个非常现实的问题。 Palign =” left” style =” text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-dentdent-count:2.0” class =“ MsoNoSpacing” I.熟悉电梯分类和性能要求palign =” left” style =“ text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0” class =“ MsoNoSpacing”电梯可以根据使用性质或速度分为多种方式,驱动模式,电源的分类,电气控制等。不同类型的电梯具有不同的性能要求,例如:消防电梯,用于消防员使用电梯的主要目的,要求地下电梯门旁边的按钮墙距地面2米。发生火灾时,消防员可以打破按钮前面的防护玻璃,并指示电梯立即返回地面。中国的《高层民用建筑设计防火规范》还规定,超过24米的酒店建筑必须安装消防电梯。了解这些性能要求对于编写电梯安装的监督规则非常有帮助。 palign =” left” style =” text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-dentdent-count:2.0” class =“ MsoNoSpacing”其次,在电梯安装过程中进行三项控制palign =“” “ style =” text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0” class =“ MsoNoSpacing”(1)电梯安装前的监控palign =“ left” style =” Text- align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0” class =“ MsoNoSpacing”首先,应该进行严格的资格审查。参加电梯安装施工的企业应具有相应的资格。施工企业的主要管理人员,例如项目经理,质量检查员,安全员和特殊类型的工人,应提供工作机会。严格禁止资质不一致的企业和个人进行工程,功放,帮助测试网络功放,其次严格审查施工计划。施工企业的施工计划是指导现场施工的指导文件,应予以指导。高度针对性和可操作性。在施工放行的情况下,应明确规定施工过程中的人员安排,时间表,施工设备和现场施工条件,并制定实用的质量保证措施和安全保障措施。电气专业监督工程师应按照国家规定和设计文件的要求,认真审查施工计划的完整性和可行性。 palign =” left” style =” text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0” class =“ MsoNoSpacing”(2)电梯安装过程监督控制palign =” left” style =” text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0” class =“ MsoNoSpacing” 1。电梯进入现场后,监理人员应根据主控项目和一般项目认真检查验收。主要控制项目为:随机文件必须完整,如土木建筑布置图,产品交付证书等;技术信息应完整如门锁装置,限速器,安全钳,缓冲器,自动扶梯踏板或踏板类型测试报告,自动扶梯扶手,行人通道和磁带断裂强度报告。一般项目包括:包装文件,安装和维护说明,电源电路,安全电路电气原理图,液压系统原理图等,设备零件和设备同相,设备外观没有明显损坏,进口设备,除使用该国家/地区语言的使用说明外,还应该有中文说明手册。 Palign =“ left” style =” text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0” class =” MsoNoSpacing” 2。认真控制过程验收,电梯安装过程中有大量的验收工作,以保证安装工程的质量,特别是关键零件,关键过程的验收工作。监理工程师应着重于以下方面:土木工程交接检查,主机安装与验收,轨道安装与验收,悬架安装与验收,轿门系统的安装与验收,电气设备的安全检查,安全设备的安全检查,调整测试,依此类推。 palign =” left” style =” text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-dentdent-count:2.0” class =“ MsoNoSpacing”(3)电梯安装后的验收控制palign =” left” Style =“文字对齐:左,文字缩进:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0” class =“ MsoNoSpacing”在子项目验收的基础上,监​​理工程师应认真执行划分项目验收。分部验收应注意以下三点:所有子项目均合格,特别是电梯相关的运行试验,过载试验,安全钳试验,缓冲试验额定转速试验,平层精度试验等。全部符合设计要求,质量控制数据齐全,感知质量符合规范要求。 Palign =” left” style =” text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-dentdent-count:2.0” class =“ MsoNoSpacing” III。电梯常见的质量问题和预防措施palign =“ left” Style =” text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0” class =“ MsoNoSpacing”电梯工程是一项系统工程,这与制造质量,安装质量以及建筑物本身的质量有关。两者之间存在很大的关系,常见的电梯工程质量存在的常见问题和主要原因如下:palign =“ left” style =” text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count :2.0” class =” MsoNoSpacing”(1)轿厢平层误差超过规定值范围。主要原因:平层传感器和磁隔离板调整不当,磁板固定螺丝松动,制动系统调整不当,间隙过大或过小,制动弹簧过紧或过紧。太松,变速触点和固定触点位置不正确。 Palign =“ left”样式=“ text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-dentdent-count:2.0” class =“ MsoNoSpacing”(2)电梯调平后,它会自动打滑。主要原因是牵引绳打滑,牵引绳上的润滑油过多或牵引轮槽的位置不合适,刹车间隙过大或发生故障,刹车油性滑移。 Palign =“ left”样式=“ text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-dentdent-count:2.0” class =“ MsoNoSpacing”(3)汽车在运行过程中摇晃或晃动。主要原因是导轨的安装误差大,导轨的接口不平整,导轨支架松动,各牵引绳的张力不一致,牵引绳的松紧度差较大,牵引机的底座没有牢固固定,间隙较大,导靴的辊子磨损不均匀,滑动导靴的靴子过度磨损,牵引机的蜗轮和蜗杆磨损严重,齿侧间隙过大。 Palign =“ left” style =“ text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0” class =“ MsoNoSpacing”(4)汽车或机房中的噪音大于电梯运行时的调节值。主要原因是:导轨上润滑油不足,异物卡在滑动导靴中,滑动导靴严重磨损,机房机械转动件之间的间隙过大,牵引机没有牢固固定后,安全夹间隙过大,有时会擦伤导轨。 Palign =“ left”样式=“ text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0” class =“ MsoNoSpacing”(5)控制系统不敏感,例如电梯按钮故障,指示灯不亮,门未在工位上打开。主要原因:控制系统中的继电器,簧片开关ch接触不良,线圈烧坏,微动开关故障等,控制部件的安装和调整不正确,安培,帮助测试放大器,机械传动机构磨损或卡塞,保险丝烧坏或焊点不良。 Palign =” left” style =” text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0” class =“ MsoNoSpacing”(六)电梯以不以正常。主要原因是电源电压过低,主回路接触器接触不良,制动间隙过小,运转中无法完全打开,制动线圈中有异物,运动不顺畅。 Palign =“ left”样式=“ text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0” class =“ MsoNoSpacing”(7)外观检查指标不符合规定的要求。主要原因:轿厢,轿厢门和层门的安装精度差,标高和水平尺寸精度低,土建不能满足电梯安装要求,机房垃圾,导轨支架,轿厢内外,底轨等。,保护不到位。除了上述质量问题外,常见的质量问题还包括电气设备和金属裸露部件的接地不良以及选择和重新匹配不当。 Palign =” left” style =” text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0” class =“ MsoNoSpacing” IV。结论palign =“ left” style =“ text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0” class =“ MsoNoSpacing”电梯安装项目是一项系统工程,涉及配电系统,自动化系统,消防系统,智能监控系统,土木建筑等,作为电气监督工程师必须熟悉以上四点,并经常进行边站和安装过程的检查,才能真正做到对电梯安装工程进行监督。 Palign =” left” style =“” text-align:left,text-indent:21.0pt,mso-char-indent-count:2.0” class =” MsoNoSpacing“